ELL Assessment for Linguistic Differences vs. Learning Disabilities
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Kohl’s Cultural Values Continuum

  1. highly identify
  2. somewhat identify
  3. identify equally with both

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Values in the United States 1 2 3 2 1 Values in Some Other Cultures
Personal control over environment, responsibility Fate, destiny
Change is natural and positive Stability, tradition, continuity
Time and its control Human interaction
Equality, fairness Hierarchy, rank, status
Individualism, independence Group’s welfare, dependence
Self-help, initiative Birthright, inheritance
Competition Cooperation
Future orientation Past orientation
Action, work orientation “Being” orientation
Informality Formality
Directness, openness, honesty Indirectness, ritual, “face”
Practicality, efficiency Idealism, theory
Materialism, acquisitiveness Spiritualism, detachment

Source: Adapted from Kohls (1984)

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