Traditionally, Puerto Rican women are expected to marry
at a young age and have many children. “The urban
mainland Puerto Rican population reflects the culture of the
island but is also influenced by poverty. This may be reflected
in high rates of female-headed households and male joblessness”
(Giammanco & Bartolomei, date, page ?).
The Taino, Spanish, and African cultures have influenced
the Puerto Rican family structure. In addition, economic changes
associated with migration to the U.S. have had an effect on
the Puerto Rican family structure. Many families have had
to adapt to their environment in the United States as they
deal with poverty and violence.
| Family is
the foundation of the Puerto Rican social structure. The
word ”familismo” is a Puerto Rican
word that means close family connections, and it emphasizes
the concern for the well being of the family.
peer-aged acquaintances are often seen as the foundation
of U.S. social structure.
by telephone, as well as visits among families, are
signs of being caring and are strongly encouraged and
by telephone is common, but family visits are often reserved
for holidays and special occasions.
between family members and others are expected to be courteous,
honorable and considerate” (Giammanco &
Bartolomei, date, page ?).
among family members reflect the independence that is
expected and highly valued among individuals in this culture.
is of primary importance to Puerto Ricans, and they value
an extended family, or modified extended family, which
is the basic support system for first- and second-generation
families in the U.S. (e.g.: cousins, aunts, uncles, grandparents,
godparents (padrino/madrina), and close friends.
unit is very diverse but, generally, it tends to be small
achievement is not considered as valuable as family loyalty.
achievement is highly valued.
It is quite
common to find three generations living under the same
Married couples tend to live in a house or apartment
near their parents.
such as the grandparents, parents, married children and
other relatives may live in different parts of the country.
brought up as an integral part of the family unit. “Each
[family] member has interdependent responsibilities, which
validate their position in the family” (Giammanco
& Bartolomei, date, p.?).
not expected to contribute to the welfare of the whole
are valued as the poor man’s wealth, the caretakers
of the old, and a symbol of fertility” (Rivera-Schoendorf,
n.d. p.4). Quite often parents, especially mothers, make
sacrifices for their children.
separate activities from the adults.
are generally expected to live at home until marriage.
are encouraged to leave the nuclear family and become
independent before marriage.
relationships are important.
is encouraged. Self-reliance and independence is encouraged.
and friendship play a major role in both social and business
||Merit is of
greater importance than interpersonal relationships in
relatives in nursing facilities is unusual. Grandparents
usually live with their children and may participate in
community activities for the elderly.
||It is common
practice to place frail elderly relatives in nursing facilities.